Determination of virus diseases on wheat growing areas of Samsun province.
This study was conducted to determine virus diseases in wheat production areas in Samsun during 2005-2006. Total 126 soil samples were collected from different locations of Samsun in 2005. Wheat and barley plants were grown in these soil samples using bait plant techniques. Presence of Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) and Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) were investigated using DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), and their vector Polymyxa graminis was analyzed using stained root samples. None of the above mentioned viruses were detected in the soil samples while P. graminis was found in ten samples. In addition to soilborne viruses, PAV and MAV races of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) were included to our research as aphid transmitted viruses to test 154 plant samples collected in 2006. ELISA test results showed that one sample was infected with WSSMV (0.7%), five samples BYDV-PAV (3.4%) and three samples BYDV-MAV (2%) while one sample was infected with BYDV-PAV+MAV double infection (0.7%). Additionally, twenty six samples were selected from different locations and symptom expression and tested for the presence of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV) by ELISA. Three samples gave positive result for MDMV. However, JGMV was not detected in any tested wheat sample. Besides this, 28 indicator plant series were inoculated with ELISA-positive samples for WSSMV and MDMV mechanically. Five inoculated samples for MDMV and one inoculated sample for WSSMV caused virus-like symptoms on indicator test plants. Up to now, this is the first report for the presence of WSSMV in Samsun province and Turkey. Also, it was determined that MDMV causes infections on wheat in Samsun.