Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

First report of Pepper mild mottle virus and Tobacco mild green mosaic virus infecting pepper in Panama.

Abstract

In February 2008, bubbling, curling, green-yellow mosaic, deformation, ringspot, necrosis of leaves, and fruit distortion were observed in field-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum) from Coclé, Herrera and Veraguas central regions of Panama. To verify the identity of the disease, three symptomatic plants from three fields of these regions were selected and analysed by DAS-ELISA using specific antibodies to Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV-1), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). All these plants were representative of each region. CMV/PMMoV/PVY/TMGMV multiple infection was detected in one plant. The other plants were also positive to CMV/PMMoV/TMGMV. No differences in symptom expression were observed, except for the infected plant with four viruses, which also showed necrotic symptoms. To confirm these results, total RNA was extracted from these plants and tested by RT-PCR with primers specific designed to amplify a region of the coat protein gene of CMV, PMMoV, TMGMV and universal potyvirus degenerate primers. Amplicons of the expected size were generated from symptomatic plant tissue, but were not produced from healthy plants or the water used as negative controls. RT-PCR products were purified and directly sequenced. BLAST analysis of CMV (GenBank Accession No. EU930200), PMMoV (EU934033), potyvirus-PVY (EU934034), and TMGMV (EU934035) sequences showed 98, 99, 93 and 98% nucleotide identity, respectively, with reference sequences deposited in the NCBI database. This is thought to be the first report of PMMoV and TMGMV in Panama.