Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Distribution, host plants, and seasonal occurrence of the maize orange leafhopper, Cicadulina bipunctata (Melichar) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), in Japan.

Abstract

The maize orange leafhopper, Cicadulina bipunctata, is a serious pest of second crops of forage maize in Kyushu, Japan, because it induces maize wallaby ear symptom (MWES), characterized by stunted growth and severe swelling of leaves. We investigated the seasonal occurrence, host plants, and distribution of C. bipunctata in Kyushu from 2004 to 2007. Population densities of C. bipunctata rapidly increased from late July, and generally peaked between September and October. Cicadulina bipunctata fed mainly on Eleusine indica, Digitaria ciliaris, and Setaria viridis from summer to autumn, and overwintered as adults mostly on Sasa spp., followed by wheat and Italian ryegrass. In early spring, the first generation seemed to grow largely on wheat. These results suggest that earlier planting of the second crop of forage maize and management of Sasa spp. in early winter are likely to be effective strategies for reducing the infestation of forage maize by C. bipunctata. Field surveys in 2005 and 2007 revealed that C. bipunctata was distributed at 34 of 54 sites, including Fukuoka, Saga, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures. Because such a wide distribution has not been reported in previous studies, C. bipunctata is considered to have expanded its range in recent years.