First report of tomato torrado virus infecting tomato in Hungary.
During the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008, in commercial greenhouses of tomato in Szeged, Öcsöd and Csongrád (Hungary), unusual disease symptoms were observed, including necrotic spots in defined areas at the base of the leaflet, necrosis in the stems, and necrotic lines on the fruit surface. Affected plants appeared inside the greenhouses with a random distribution and the incidence recorded was at least 40%. These symptoms resembled those described for Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) infection in Spain and Poland. To verify the identity of the disease, 3 symptomatic plants from commercial greenhouses of each geographical location were selected and analysed by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antibodies specific to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). All the 3 samples were positive for ToTV by molecular hybridization and RT-PCR. The RT-PCR products were purified and directly sequenced. The amplified fragments of the 3 Hungarian isolates, ToTV-H1, ToTV-H2 and ToTV-H3, for the polyprotein (GenBank Accession Nos. EU835496, FJ616995 and FJ616994, respectively) and the CP Vp23 (GenBank Accession Nos. FJ616996, FJ616997 and FJ 616998, respectively) showed 99-98% nt identity with the polyprotein and the coat protein regions of ToTV from Spain and Poland (GenBank Accession Nos. DQ3888880 and EU563947, respectively). Whiteflies, commonly found in Hungarian greenhouses, have been reported to transmit ToTV, although the efficiency of transmission is unknown. This is thought to be the first report of ToTV in Hungary.