Detection of seed borne mycoflora in maize (Zea mays L.).
Seed borne mycoflora of maize was tested by using blotter, agar plate and deep freezing methods as recommended by ISTA. Of the 100 samples collected from different places of Pakistan, a total number of 56 species belonging to 23 genera of fungi were isolated and identified. About 70% of the samples were infested with Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. wentii and Penicillium spp. Of the three methods used, agar plate method yielded the highest number of fungi as compared to blotter and deep freezing methods. Deep freezing method was the best for the detection of Drechslera spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., while agar plate method was suitable for the detection of Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., and Rhizopus spp. Out of 56 species, 22 species viz., Arthrinium phaeospermum, Aspergillus foetidus, A. tubingensis, Curvularia clavata, C. intermedia, C. pallescens, Bipolaris maydis, Drechslera carbonum, Diplodia zea, Fusarium crockwellense, F. cladosporium, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. nivale, F. proliferatum, Penicillium citrinum, P. funiculosum, Phoma herbarum, Rhizopus oligosporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Trichoderma harzianum are new reports from Pakistan on maize seeds. However, the same fungal species have been reported on maize seed from various countries of the world such as USA, Thailand, India, Canada, Australia, France, Nepal, United Kingdom, Western Romania and Hungary.