Sampling and bacteriological detection of Salmonella in poultry and poultry premises: a review.
The detection of Salmonella in primary poultry production is an issue of great concern in the European Union (EU), since control of this zoonotic disease is in part based on the reduction of the prevalence at the farm level. Success of detection is likely to be highly dependent on the choice of an adequate sampling procedure combined with a sensitive culture method. In poultry farms 'naturally pooled' faeces/litter and dust are the matrices of choice. In floor systems boot swabs are the preferred method for the collection of faeces. A wide range of culture methods is available, but ISO 6579:2002 (Annex D) is currently the standard for poultry environmental samples in the EU. In this review, the authors discuss in detail the range of sampling and culture methodologies for Salmonella in poultry farms. The review also covers sampling and testing of poultry hatcheries, live birds and poultry carcasses.