Species composition and seasonal occurrence of spider mites and their predators in sprayed and unsprayed apple orchards in Tokat, Turkey.
The species composition and seasonal cycle of Tetranychus urticae Koch (two-spotted spider mite) and Eotetranychus uncatus Garman (garman spider mite; the two species were evaluated together), Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher) (hawthorn red spider mite), Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (European red mite), Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) (brown mite) (Acari: Tetranychidae), Cenopalpus pulcher Can. and Fanz. (flat scarlet mite) (Tenuipalpidae) and their natural enemies (Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae family members) were compared in two apple orchards during the years 2000 to 2002 in Tokat, Turkey. One orchard was pesticide-free, and the other was sprayed. Surveys were carried out once a week from April to November and the differences in the dominant species of spider mites and phytoseiid mites between the two orchards were recorded. In the sprayed orchard, the dominant phytophagous mites were A. viennensis and P. ulmi, whereas in the unsprayed orchard E. uncatus and C. pulcher were abundant. It was found that the predatory mites were able to control spider mites in the unsprayed orchard, but the population level was not adequate to control them in the sprayed orchard, presumably due to the excessive use of pesticides.