Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract Full Text

The health condition of urban trees in Pakrac with a special focus on leaf diseases and insect pests.


The history of landscaping in urban areas of Pakrac district in Croatia is related to the end of the 19th century. The influence of various damaging biotic and abiotic factors throughout many years have reflected in the health status of trees in parks and tree lines. This research was conducted to evaluate the present health status of urban trees in Pakrac, with special overview on leaf diseases and insect pests. Research was focused on the most planted tree species: Aesculus hippocastanum, Tilia cordata, T. platyphyllos, Betula pendula, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer negundo, Fraxinus angustifolia, F. excelsior, Quercus robur, Platanus acerifolia, Fagus sylvatica, Alnus glutinosa, Juglans regia and Picea abies; showing the presence of pathogenic fungi and insect pests: Microsphaera alphitoides, Phyllactinia corylea, Uncinula bicornis, Melampsoridium betulinum, Gnomonia leptostyla, Cercospora microsora, Cameraria ohridella, Hartigiola annulipes, Eryophies tiliae, Eryophies tiliae lateannulatus, Agelastica alni, Chermes viridis [Adelges viridis], Corythuca ciliata, Phyllonorycter platani, Phyllonorycter maestingella. The most significant damage caused by pathogenic fungi were in trees infected by Microsphaera alphitoides, U. bicornis and Phyllactinia corylea, while the greatest influence by insect pests had Cameraria ohridella on horse-chestnut trees, and Phyllonorycter platani and Corythuca ciliata on hybrid plane trees.