Studies of life history and some aspects of field biology and ecology of Nysius huttoni White (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae).
Detailed field studies of the biology and ecology of Nysius huttoni were undertaken over 4 years in Canterbury, New Zealand. This study establishes beyond doubt that there are three generations a year, with generations overlapping between the first and second, and the second and third generations. Nysius huttoni overwinters as adults of the third (autumn) generation. Adults go into overwintering from mid April to early May and emerge from overwintering sites in late August or early September. The first generation (from newly laid egg to emergence of adult) completed development in a range of 55-65 days over the 4 years, and the second and third generations in ranges of 35-50 and 20-60 days, respectively. The period of occurrence for the first generation ranged from 120 to 135 days over the 4 years, and for the second and third generations ranged from 80 to 120 and 285 to 295 days, respectively. Each generation showed a distinct seasonal peak and pattern in mating and oviposition; the third-generation adults that emerge before winter mate and oviposit in spring after overwintering. The present results will be useful in predicting the field development and occurrence of N. huttoni in Canterbury.