Identification and field testing of sex pheromone components of a Korean population of the allium leafminer, Acrolepiopsis sapporensis.
The allium leafminer, Acrolepiopsis sapporensis Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), is a pest of Allium species (Liliaceae) in Asia and Hawaii, USA. We identified candidate sex pheromone components in pheromone gland extracts of female moths and field tested the response of male moths to blends with different components and ratios. Gas chromatographic comparison of abdominal tip extracts from both sexes showed three female-specific components: (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (Z11-16:OH). These compounds were identified by mass spectral analysis of natural pheromone components and dimethyldisulfide adducts, and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. The average ratio of three components, Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:OAc, and Z11-16:OH, in female extract was 33:100:14. Field trapping experiments indicated that all three components were essential for maximal attraction of male moths. Traps baited with a ternary blend mimicking the blend found in the pheromone gland extracts caught significantly more males than traps baited with caged live females. Increasing doses of the pheromone blend in the lures from 0.01 to 1.0 mg increased catches of male A. sapporensis.