Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Sensitivities of Phytophthora infestans to metalaxyl, cymoxanil, and dimethomorph.

Abstract

The isolates of Phytophthora infestans on tomato in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, were determined for the sensitivities to metalaxyl, cymoxanil and dimethomorph to give the basic information for integrating disease management. Sensitivities were tested by measuring the radial growth on agar medium amended with fungicide, compared with the floating-leaf-disk method. 239 isolates were collected from eight tomato growing areas during 2000-2006. The testing results indicated that the frequencies of sensitive, intermediate, and resistant isolates to metalaxyl were 42.26, 35.98, and 23.53%, respectively. Variations in sensitivities amongst isolates from different areas or different years were very high for metalaxyl. All isolates from Tianlin and Wuxuan were sensitive to metalaxyl, but the metalaxyl-resistant isolates predominated in Tianyang, with the frequency of 51.35%. The EC50 values of certain isolates from Tianyang were higher than 500 µg mL-1 and their resistance levels were over 100 000 folds. Cymoxanil has been used for nearly 10 years in Guangxi, and dimethomorph has been used for 5-6 years. However, there was no decrease in sensitivity of P. infestans populations and the sensitivities of the pathogen were nearly normally distributed. Hence, their mean EC50 value [cymoxanil (0.1647±0.0255) µg mL-1, dimethomorph (0.0970±0.0052) µg mL-1] could be used as the baseline sensitivities for monitoring the field resistance development. The comparison with the floating-leaf-disk method indicates that both the techniques provided equivalent results. These studies suggested that metalaxyl can be continuously applied in Tianlin, Wuxuan, and Nanning due to the resistant isolates that have not been found, while for those areas with resistant isolate, the use of metalaxyl should be reduced or alternated, and cymoxanil or dimethomorph was recommended for controlling late blight disease of tomato.