Development of parthenium based activated carbon and its utilization for adsorptive removal of p-cresol from aqueous solution.
The activated carbon was prepared from carbonaceous agriculture waste Parthenium hysterophorous by chemical activation using concentrated H2SO4 at 130±5°C. The prepared activated carbon was characterized and was found as an effective adsorbent material. In order to test the efficacy of parthenium based activated carbon (PAC), batch experiments were performed to carryout the adsorption studies on PAC for the removal of highly toxic pollutant p-cresol from aqueous solution. The p-cresol adsorption studies were also carried out on commercial grade activated carbon (AC) to facilitate comparison between the adsorption capabilities of PAC and AC. For PAC and AC, the predictive capabilities of two types of kinetic models and six types of adsorption equilibrium isotherm models were examined. The effect of pH of solution, adsorbent dose and initial p-cresol concentration on adsorption behaviour was investigated, as well. The adsorption on PAC and on AC was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant 0.0016 min-1 and 0.0050 min-1, respectively. The highest adsorptive capacity of PAC and AC for p-cresol solution was attained at pH 6.0. Further, as an adsorbent PAC was found to be as good as AC for removal of p-cresol upto a concentration of 500 mg/l in aqueous solution. Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Fritz-Schlunder models were found to be appropriate isotherm models for PAC while Toth, Radke-Prausnitz and Fritz-Schlunder were suitable models for AC to remove p-cresol from aqueous solution.