Occurrence of charcoal rot on kiwi fruit in Iran.
In July 2006, wilted kiwifruit trees showed severe root rotting and dry rotting of the trunks that expanded up to 30 cm above the crown in the Kordkuy area of the Golestan province (northern Iran). Numerous microsclerotia were present on rotted roots and, sometimes, the surface of rotted stems was covered with small pycnidia. The pathogen was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina. An extensive field survey showed that most of the recently established orchards in the Kordkuy area were infected, the same as another stand in the Noshahr area of Mazandaran province. This is thought to be the first report of M. phaseolina-induced charcoal rot disease of kiwifruit in Iran.