Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Sugarcane mosaic virus.

Abstract

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is one of major virus in the genus Potyvirus. The virus is not enveloped having filamentous flexuous particles (700-760 nm long and 13-14 nm in diameter). The virus contains 5.5%-6.0% nucleic acid and one molecule of single stranded RNA. Total genome length is 9-10 kb, excluding the poly (A) tail, and encodes a putative polyprotein. The virus contains 94-94.5% protein. The virus is also identified with pinwheel inclusion in the infected tissue. So far, 14 strains (A-N) of SCMV have been identified throughout the world. The most distinctive symptom of mosaic disease is a pattern of contrasting shades of green, often islands of normal green on a background of paler green or yellowish chlorotic areas on the leaf blade. The host range of SCMV is limited to the grass family. This virus may cause large damage to sugarcane production. The yield loss is between 3%-50%. The virus is transmitted by sap and by several species of aphids in non-persistent manner. SCMV reacted strongly with the SCMV antiserum in DAC-ELISA, DIBA, ISEM and EBIA tests. However, only faint positive reaction was observed with sugarcane streak mosaic virus and sorghum mosaic virus antisera. The molecular weight of SCMV-coat protein ranged between 34 kDa and 39.5 kDa. RT-PCR and IC-RT-PCR tests were developed for identification of many strains and isolates of SCMV all around the world. Probes for diagnosis of SCMV have also been developed based on the conserved central region of the viral coat protein. No single approach can provide effective and long lasting management of SCMV. Integral measures such as use of virus free seed-cane, appropriate cultural practices, hot water treatment, apical meristem culture and resistant clones (developed through conventional breeding or genetic transformation) can provide ideal control of SCMV.