Genetic comparison of Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations from Europe and Asia.
The distribution of the double spined spruce engraver beetle Ips duplicatus ranges from Scandinavia and northeastern Europe to northern Asia. In Europe, I. duplicatus usually is associated with I. typographus on Picea abies, and due to morphological similarities and similar gallery constructions the damage and significance of I. duplicatus are often not recognised and thus underestimated. I. duplicatus has been recently reported from the southern part of Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, northern parts of Austria and Germany; records are missing from many other central European countries (e.g., Hungary). The species became an important pest in some parts of central Europe, and continuous outbreaks of this bark beetle have been reported in Inner Mongolia, China, since the 1950s. The aim of this study was to compare I. duplicatus populations from Europe and Asia by genetic means using the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA. Individuals of I. duplicatus populations from China, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were collected, and 520 bp fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were analysed. Four haplotypes were detected and a sequence divergence of 0.8% was found between the populations from China and Europe. These differences associate with behavioural differences in the pheromone bouquet and behavioural response of the two groups. Within Europe three haplotypes were found, but due to the small sample size no significant geographical distribution was demonstrated.