Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Evaluation of aerosol devices for simultaneous disruption of sex pheromone communication in Cydia pomonella and Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

Abstract

A two-year study was conducted evaluating Puffer® aerosol dispensers (Suterra LLC, Bend, OR, USA) for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Puffer® dispenser consists of a pressurized metal canister loaded with pheromone active ingredients dissolved in solvent and housed within a circuit-controlled, plastic dispensing cabinet programmed to release an aerosol spray of pheromone at regular intervals. Puffers® were deployed at the label-recommended rate of 2.5 ha-1 and released ca. 5-10 mg of pheromone (depending on treatment) per 15 min during a 12-h cycle beginning each day at 15:00 h for the duration of the season. In 2005, commercially-managed apple plots (3.2-4.9 ha) were treated with Puffers® releasing both species' pheromone simultaneously (dual-species) or with twice the number of adjacently-deployed Puffers® (4-6 m apart) releasing each individual species' pheromones (single-species), while maintaining comparable overall release rates of pheromone between these two treatments. Plots 100 m away and not treated with pheromone served as the control. Disruption of male C. pomonella and G. molesta orientation to pheromone-baited traps was 46-75 and 91-98%, respectively, in Puffer®-treated plots compared with untreated controls. There was no statistical difference in moth disruption between plots treated with dual-species and single-species Puffers®. Fruit injury was not statistically different between Puffer®-treated plots and control plots not receiving pheromone. In 2006, disruption of male moth orientation to traps was 24-26 and 84-97% in Puffer®-treated plots (2.9-5.7 ha) for C. pomonella and G. molesta, respectively, compared with untreated controls. During this season, fruit injury was lower in pheromone-treated plots compared with untreated controls at mid-season, but not at pre-harvest. Combining the pheromone of both species into single Puffer® units did not decrease efficacy of disruption compared with deploying twice as many Puffers® releasing a similar amount of each individual species' pheromone suggesting that multi-species disruption using Puffers® is a viable option. However, we conclude that the efficacy of disruption attained with low-densities (2.5 ha-1) of Puffers® at the moth densities recorded in this study is insufficient for effective control of C. pomonella without input of companion insecticides.