Distribution and recovery of Tilletia indica teliospores from regulated wheat fields in Texas.
Eight wheat fields from the Karnal bunt-regulated regions within Texas were grid sampled to gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of teliospores produced by the causal agent, Tilletia indica. Teliospores from 25-g aliquots of soil from each grid point were extracted using a size-selective sieving sucrose-centrifugation procedure. Teliospores were recovered from all eight fields and, in some cases, from every grid point within a field. Total teliospore numbers ranged from 0 to 1,305 per 25 g of soil. Over 70% of the total grid sampled points contained one or more teliospores. The relation between soil chemical and physical characteristics and teliospore numbers from each field was evaluated. In general, no consistent, significant trend could be made between soil factors and teliospore numbers. Geostatistics were used to analyze data from grid points and create contour maps. Teliospore distribution was aggregated in four of the fields, random in three of the fields, and discontinuous (neither random nor aggregated) in a single field. This is the first report of widespread distribution and high teliospore numbers from wheat field soils in the United States.