Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract Full Text

Weed flora of Gladiolus fields in Lahore, Pakistan.


Gladiolus is one of the most popular cut flowers being cultivated in Pakistan. The present studies report the weed flora associated with Gladiolus. A total of 31 angiospermic species belonging to 17 families were found growing in association with Gladiolus. Maximum number of species (6) belonged to family Asteraceae followed by Papillionaceae (4) and Poaceae. Rumex dentatus was found to be the most frequently occurring and densely populated weed with absolute frequency (AF) of 74 and absolute density (AD) of 1.33. The other frequently occurring and densely populated weeds were Poa annua, Coronopus didymus, Convolvulus arvensis, Euphorbia prostrate, Melilotus parviflora, Cynodon dactylon, Mazus goodenifolia and Verbena agrestis with AF ranging from 51-69% and AD from 0.75-1.05. Less frequently occurring weeds with AF between 21 to 49% were Amaranthus viridis, Cirsium arvense, Eclipta alba, Stellaria media, Chenopodium murale, C. album, Medicago denticulata, Fumaria indica, Malva parviflora, Oxalis corniculata, Imperata cylindrica, Ranunculus muricatus, R. scleratus, Solanum nigrum. Parthenium hysterophorus, Sonchus asper, Xanthium stramonium, Euphorbia heleoscopia, Lathyrus aphca, and Solanum nigrum were found least frequently occurring species with AF 20% and below and AD of 0.10-0.38.