Edge effects on species composition and exotic species abundance in the North Carolina Piedmont.
Edges between forest and non-forest habitats often have significant effects on forest microclimate and resource availability, with corresponding effects on species composition and abundance. Exotic species are often increased in abundance near forest edges. This increase in abundance could be either because of the increase in resource availability near edges, or because of increased dispersal into forest edges. We measured species composition and a set of geospatial variables on transects at 66 edges in the North Carolina Piedmont in an attempt to distinguish between these two factors. Mantel tests show that species composition is significantly different in forest edges than in the forest interior, but that this effect only penetrates about 5 m into the forest. Indicator species analysis finds several species that are indicative of edge communities, including trumpet vine (Campsis radicans), two drought-tolerant oak species (Quercus stellata and Q. falcata), a serviceberry (Amelanchier arboreum), and a common exotic species, tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Poisson regression techniques showed that in both the seedling and tree strata of the forest, exotic species increased in abundance on flat sites with a high potential seed source. Mapping predicted exotic species abundance onto the landscape. We find that large-scale variation in exotic species abundance is due mostly to variation in potential seed sources, while small-scale variation relates more to edaphic factors. Our results stress that both dispersal and environmental filters are important for determining exotic species abundance, but potentially the filters operate at different spatial scales.