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Abstract

Heavy metals in aquatic macrophytes from two small rivers polluted by urban, agricultural and textile industry sewages sw Poland.

Abstract

This article presents the results from a study of the comparison of 2 lowland rivers: the Olobok and the Pilawa in southwest Poland polluted by urban, agricultural, and textile industry sewages. pH and concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, and sulfate were measured in water samples and concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, and Zn were measured in stream bottom sediments and in the aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Callitriche verna, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton natans, and Ceratophyllum demersum from the river Olobok and Elodea canadensis, Polygonum amphibium, Potamogeton crispus, and Veronica beccabunga from the river Pilawa. The matrix of concentrations of 16 elements in 27 plant samples of 7 species from 15 sampling sites of 2 rivers and concentrations of 15 elements and pH in water samples and 16 elements and pH in bottom sediment samples of these sites was submitted to numerical classification, which revealed that sampling sites from the rivers were differentiated by the value of factor 1 of principal component analysis (PCA), which was related to the pH of water, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Ni in water and Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, P, and S in bottom sediments. More polluted parts of both rivers were differentiated from less polluted parts by the value of factor 2 of PCA, which was related to Pb, Zn, and sulfates in water and Ca and Zn in bottom sediments. Macrophytes from the Olobok and Pilawa rivers were differentiated by the value of factor 1, which was related to Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, N, Na, Pb, and S. Groups of macrophytes of more and less polluted parts of both rivers differed by the value of factor 2, which was related to P, K, and Mn. Downstream of the sewage outputs in both rivers, a significantly increased level of pollution occurs with elements correlated with factor 1: Among others were Cu and Cr, typical for the textile industry along the river Pilawa, and among others were Mn and Ni, typical for the urban and agricultural activities in the river Olobok.