Cone collecting techniques for whitebark pine.
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a common long-lived tree of high elevation and timberline forests in much of western North America, is declining because of insect infestation, fire exclusion, and the introduced white pine blister rust disease. Restoration treatments relying on nursery production of seedlings for artificial regeneration are quickly developing. Cone collecting techniques are a critical step in this process. The aim of this study was to describe common and emerging techniques for cone collection used at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA in 2005. Collecting options were climbing with rope, free climbing, ground-based orchard ladder and tree-tong. Recommendations are offered to guide managers and fieldworkers in efficient, safe, and effective cone collection.