Survey on weed problems in wheat crop in district Mardan.
Surveys were conducted during mid and late seasons of wheat crop regarding weed problem in wheat crop in district Mardan during 2003-04, using a specific format of a questionnaire (Appendix-I) alongwith personal observations. A total of 100 farmers from 5 villages (20 farmers from each village) were randomly selected and interviewed using the questionnaire. In Mardan, the major weeds reported were Medicago denticulata, Melilotus parviflora, Avena fatua, Cirsium arvense, Phalaris minor. Lolium sp., Carthamus oxyacantha, Silybum marianum, Convolvulus arvensis, Malcolmia africana, Galium aparine, Fumaria indica, Vicia sativa, Chenopodium album, and Anagallis arvensis etc. Annual wheat yield losses due to weeds ranged from 25-50%. Forty six percent of the farmers regarded weeds as the most important constraint related to wheat production. Almost, 59% of the farmers used chemical method of weed control. Moreover, 53% of the farmers reported increase in weed infestation during last ten years. The grain yield reported was in the range of 500-2500 kg ha-1.