Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Determination of mycoflora in almond plantations under drought conditions in southeastern Anatolia project region, Turkey.

Abstract

In this study, we aimed to determine the fungi that are among the pathogens leading to diseases in almond orchards in the region. In various organs of totally 8720 almond trees in 23 districts within these three provinces between 2002-2003, the rates of disease symptoms caused by a single fungal pathogen were found to be 98.70% for Monilia (Monilinia laxa), 96.11% for Red leaf blotch (Polystigma ochraceum), 95.93% for Shot hole (Stigmina carpophila), 6.11% for Leaf curl (Taphrina deformons) and 3.08% for Wood rots (Fomes fomentarius). Of the disease symptoms caused by more than one fungal pathogen, the rates of leaf blight, leaf fruit and branch canker were determined to be 88.22, 69.02 and 33.05%, respectively. In the isolations performed in vitro conditions in fruit samples with symptom, Aspergillus sp. was found to have the highest value as 26.34%, followed by Penicillium sp. as 19.02%, Alternaria sp. as 11.55%, Rhizopus sp. as 8.46%, Cladosporium sp. as 7.54%, Stemphylium sp. as 7.05%, Coryneum beijerinckii as 5.93%, Macrophoma sp. as 3.21% and Epicoccum sp. as 2.08%. In leaves, Alternaria sp. was isolated at the rate of 28.04%, Cladosporium sp. as 17.881%, Bipolaris sp. as 14.72%, Helminthosporium sp. as 12.16%, C. beijerinckii as 10.57%, Chaetomium sp. as 1.26% and other fungi as 17.10%. In the isolations performed in samples exhibiting wilt, Thielaviopsis sp. was determined as 42.16%, Fusarium sp. as 27.00%, Rhizoctonia sp. as 9.25% and other fungi as 21.32%. In the isolations in tissues with canker, Stemphylium sp. was found to be 16.25%, Ulocladium sp. 14.74%, Manila laxa 7.25%, C. beijerinckii 6.47%, Pseudobotrytis sp. 6.17%, Pyrenochaeta sp. 3.50% and other fungi at the rate of 19.97%.