Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Ips subelongatus to semiochemicals from its hosts, non-hosts, and conspecifics in China.
Volatiles from hosts, non-hosts, interspecifics, and conspecifics of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus Motsch., were analyzed using both gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, and field trapping bioassays in Inner Mongolia, China. GC-EAD experiments indicated that I. subelongatus antennae (both sexes) strongly responded not only to the major male-produced conspecific components, ipsenol, and ipsdienol, but also to other bark beetle compounds (cis-verbenol and verbenone), host monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, and para-cymene) from Larix sp. logs, and non-host leaf (green leaf volatiles and geranyl acetone) and bark (C8-alcohols and trans-conophthorin) volatiles. Repeatable EAD responses were also found to two compounds from hindgut extracts that are undetectable by GC. One of these minor compounds was identified as amitinol. Field trapping experiments showed that the EAD-active, major male-hindgut component, racemic ipsenol, is the only individual compound that significantly attracted both sexes of I. subelongatus, whereas all other compounds, including previously reported pheromone components of European Ips cembrae, ipsdienol and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, were unattractive. Ipsdienol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, or their binary blend had no synergistic or antagonistic effects on I. subelongatus attraction when combined with ipsenol, whereas cis-verbenol (a synomone) and verbenone (the antiaggregation semiochemical) inhibited its attraction to the ipsenol-containing attractive blend. A mixture of three EAD-active host monoterpenes, α-pinene, β-pinene, and para-cymene, was unattractive, but interrupted the pheromone response of I. subelongatus. Geranyl acetone, one of the strong EAD-active non-host volatiles also significantly reduced the number of I. subelongatus captured in traps baited with ipsenol-containing attractive blend. Our results add support to the recent phylogenetic finding that European and Asian larch bark beetles should be regarded as two distinct species: I. cembrae infecting larch in Europe and I. subelongatus infesting larch in Asia.