Seasonal incidence of insect-pests of cotton in the scarce rainfall zone of Andhra Pradesh.
Approximately 20 species of pests infected upland cotton crops in Andhra Pradesh, India, in an overlapping manner. Nine species of natural enemies preyed on various stages of pests from 1999 to 2001 in Andhra Pradesh. Only 5 species, i.e. Amrasca biguttula biguttula, Aphis gossypii, Earias spp., Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella and Bemisia tabaci attained the status of major pests. In the case of natural enemies, Coccinella septempunctata, Menochilus sexamaculatus [Cheilomenes sexmaculata], Chrysoperla carnea, Syrphus serarius [Betasyrphus serarius], Platygomphos dolobratus and Cantheconidea furcellata were found to feed on the sucking pests attacking cotton. Trichogramma chilonis, Bracon gelechiae, Apanteles flavipes [Cotesia flavipes] and Apanteles colomani were found in the ecosystem to a lesser extent.