Invasive and quarantine pests in forests in Slovakia.
Biological invasions of insects, plants, and fungal pest species often cause substantial disturbance to forest ecosystems and as well as severe socioeconomic impacts. Central Europe acts as a 'bridge' between Western and Eastern Europe both ecologically and as an important transit corridor for people. Human activity, including the movement of material goods, increases the risk of invasions. Some species introduced in the past have been established, becoming common and causing serious problems (such as Dreyfusia nordmannianae or Hyphantria cunea). The status, importance and spatial distribution in Slovakia of seven different forest pests recently introduced into Slovak forest ecosystems (Cameraria ohridella, Coleotechnites piceaella, Cryphonectria parasitica, Dothistroma septospora [Mycosphaerella pini], Ips duplicatus, Parectopa robiniella, and Phyllonorycter robiniellus) as well as two others not yet recorded in Slovakia (Anoplophora glabripennis, and Phytophthora spp.) are discussed.