Influence of Trichoderma species on mycotoxins production and pathogenic capability of Fusarium moniliforme associated with lentil seeds.
Different fungal species were isolated from seeds of lentil cv. Giza 9. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella moniliformis] and Penicillium chrysogenum were the principal fungal species isolated. Trichoderma aureoviride, T. harzianum and T. polysporum [Tolypocladium niveum] were examined for their antagonistic activity against the toxinogenic fungi. T. aureoviride expressed the highest reduction percentage for F. moniliforme mycotoxins (zearalenone by 60% and diacetoxyscirpenol by 45%) in the liquid medium. The Trichoderma spp. did not reduce aflatoxin production by A. flavus in the liquid medium. T. aureoviride was selected for the treatment of lentil seeds infected by F. moniliforme. T. aureoviride at 18% moisture content (MC) reduced zearalenone by 20-30%; the reduction increased to 38% at 25% MC. Germination of lentil seeds was reduced by F. moniliforme at 18% MC and this effect was changed by T. aureoviride application from 83 to 97% after 2 weeks and from 33 to 77% after 4 weeks of treatment. Application of the antagonistic T. aureoviride to F. moniliforme-infested soil resulted in a 50% reduction in the percentage of lentil root rot disease severity.