Binomial sequential sampling plan for hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) sistens infesting individual eastern hemlock trees.
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic insect pest that is killing eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, and Carolina hemlock, Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, in the eastern United States. We used the sequential interval procedure to develop a binomial sequential sampling plan for A. tsugae sistens on individual eastern hemlock trees that uses nondestructive sampling of new shoots. The actual α (type I) and β (type II) error rates were essentially 5 and 10%, respectively. Tallies of new shoots infested by at least one A. tsugae sistens were compared with stop values for thresholds of 10 and 30% of new hemlock shoots infested. Twenty to 80 new shoots had to be examined per tree to render a low, high, or indeterminate classification, which took <2 min per tree regardless of the threshold used. This plan should be an efficient and cost-effective tool in the management of A. tsugae infestations on individual, high-value eastern hemlock trees.