Infestation levels of Varroa destructor in local honey bees of Jordan.
To determine Varroa mite infestation levels in Jordan, a survey covering 180 colonies of two bee types (Apis mellifera syriaca and A. m. syriaca hybrids) from six locations of 4 climatic zones was conducted during August, 8 month after the last treatment. Sampled colonies had 8-10 frames covered with bees and 3-4 brood frames. Levels of infestation were determined on both adult worker bees and in sealed worker brood cells. Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences due to bee type with average adult bee infestation of 10.9 and 13.1% on hybrid and local bee types, respectively. Average infestation levels in sealed brood worker cells were 37.6 and 32.5% in hybrid and local bee types, respectively. Differences in infestation levels on adult bees were significant due to location and ranged between 6.9-18.6% in Daba'a (Desert climate) and Jerash (Dry Mediterranean), respectively. In sealed worker brood cells infestation levels ranged between 15.7-84.7% in Baqa (Dry Mediterranean) and Jerash, respectively. This indicates clearly that the usual scheduled Varroa control practice by a single chemical treatment in autumn could be insufficient. Therefore, to prevent damages or even losses of colonies, including diagnosis of infestation rates as part of integrated Varroa management is highly recommended.