Isolation, identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of the Brazilian population of Spodoptera frugiperda.
Several studies have shown intraspecific geographical variation in the composition of sex pheromones. Pheromone lures from North America and Europe were not effective against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil, so we examined the composition of the sex pheromone produced by females from Brazilian populations. Virgin female gland extracts contained (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac), (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate (E7-12:Ac), dodecyl acetate, (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), (Z)-10-tetradecenyl acetate, tetradecyl acetate/(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate. The relative proportions of each acetate were 0.8:1.2:0.6:traces:82.8:0.3:1.5:12.9, respectively. This is the first time that E7-12:Ac has been reported from the pheromone gland of S. frugiperda. Only three compounds, Z9-14:Ac, Z7-12:Ac, and E7-12:Ac, elicited antennal responses, and there were no differences in catch between traps baited with either Z7-12:Ac+Z9-14:Ac or Z7-12:Ac+Z9-14:Ac+Z11-16:Ac blends. However, the Z7-12:Ac+Z9-14:Ac+E7-12:Ac blend was significantly better than Z7-12:Ac+Z9-14:Ac, indicating that E7-12:Ac is an active component in the sex pheromone of the Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda.