Biological and molecular characterization of a novel carmovirus isolated from Angelonia.
A new carmovirus was isolated from Angelonia plants (Angelonia angustifolia), with flower break and mild foliar symptoms, grown in the United States and Israel. The virus, for which the name Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV) is proposed, has isometric particles, ∼30 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana species, Schizanthus pinnatus, Myosotis sylvatica, Phlox drummondii, and Digitalis purpurea. Virions were isolated from systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves, and directly from naturally infected Angelonia leaves, using typical carmovirus protocols. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanical inoculation of uninfected Angelonia seedlings with purified virions. Isometric particles were observed in leaf dips and virion preparations from both Angelonia and N. benthamiana, and in thin sections of Angelonia flower tissue by electron microscopy. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 38 kDa was observed. Virion preparations were used to produce virus-specific polyclonal antisera in both Israel and the United States. The antisera did not react with Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), or Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV) by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting. In reciprocal tests, antisera against PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV reacted only with the homologous viruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Florida isolate of AnFBV and the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Israeli and Maryland isolates were determined. The genomic RNA is 3,964 nucleotides and contains four open reading frames arranged in a manner typical of carmoviruses. The AnFBV CP is most closely related to PFBV, whereas the AnFBV replicase is most closely related to PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV. Particle morphology, serological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of AnFBV to the genus Carmovirus.