Overview on introduced aquatic species in European navigational and adjacent waters.
More than 1,000 non-indigenous aquatic species have been recorded, in total, from coastal Europe, i.e. navigational inland waterways for ocean-going vessels and adjacent water bodies in close proximity. Regions considered in this overview range from European Arctic waters to the Mediterranean Sea and Irish waters to the Black Sea. The majority of introduced taxa have been first recorded since the 1950s. Approximately 600 taxa (ranging from unicellular algae to vertebrates) are established with self-sustaining populations. The dominating group of exotic species across all seas is zoobenthos organisms. Introduction vectors are predominantly shipping (ballast water and hull fouling) and species movements for aquaculture or stocking purposes.