Multiparasitism by the pupal parasitoids, Xanthopimpla stemmator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Pediobius furvus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on two African cereal stemborers, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
The outcome of multiparasitism by two pupal parasitoids, the exotic solitary ichneumonid X. stemmator and the indigenous gregarious eulophid P. furvus, was studied using the invasive crambid stem borer C. partellus and the indigenous noctuid B. fusca as hosts. Two parasitism sequences were observed, where X. stemmator oviposited before P. furvus, and vice versa. In addition, the effect of time between first and second parasitism on parasitoid emergence, development, sex ratio, and number of offspring was assessed. For most treatments, time interval between parasitism had no significant effect on the percentage of pupae producing either P. furvus or X. stemmator. In general, X. stemmator outcompeted P. furvus irrespective of the order of oviposition, time interval between ovipositions and host species. Further studies, especially on host finding capacity of the two parasitoid species are required to determine the competitiveness of the two species under field conditions.