Burkholderia solanacearum. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria].
A description is provided for Burkholderia solanacearum. Information is included on the disease caused by the organism, its transmission, geographical distribution, and hosts. HOSTS: The host range is one of the widest of all the phytopathogenic bacteria. The most susceptible plant family, in terms of numbers of species affected is the Solanaceae; over fifty other plant families contain susceptible species. The most economically significant hosts are listed here. For a more complete listing see Kelman (1953), Bradbury (1986) and Hayward & Hartman (1994). Arachis hypogaea, Capsicum spp., Gossypium hirsutum, Ipomoea batatus, Lycopersicon esculentum, Manihot esculenta, Musa spp., Nicotiana spp., Solanum melongena, Solanum tuberosum & Zingiber officinale. DISEASE: Bacterial wilt. Infection is systemic, producing a wilt of parts or the whole plant. Vascular system may become discoloured, bacterial ooze can be produced and plants may be stunted and chlorotic. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world (see data sheets on quarantine pests). TRANSMISSION: A variety of modes of transmission exist which are host dependant. Infected planting material and true seed is responsible for the spread of bacterial wilt of banana, ginger, groundnut, potato and tomato, whilst transport of latently infected in seedlings (stawberry) and the actions of insect (Moko disease of banana) and weather (tobacco) have all been implicated. For a review see Kelman et al. (1994).