Seed-borne mycoflora of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).
Using standard blotter and deep-freezing techniques, seed-borne mycoflora of 35 samples of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were studied. Acremonium fusidioides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Aspergillus ochraceus, Bipolaris bisepta, Cephaliophora tropica, Chaetomium spinosum, Cladobotryum varium, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Emericella nidulans, Gonatobotrys simplex, Humicola grisea, Memnoniella echinata, Mucor mucedo, Myrothecium verrucaria, Phialophora verrucosa and Syncephalastrum racemosum were found to be new seed-borne fungal species on sunflower. Absidia corymbifera, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, Chaetomium bostrychodes, C. globosum, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium pallidoroseum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer were predominantly isolated by both techniques. During seed component plating, Aspergillus awamori, A. ustus and Exserohilum halodes were found to be new reported species. Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma harzianum were isolated from all component parts, whereas, Fusarium solani was isolated only from cotyledons and axis.