Insect pests succession on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., under Hisar (Haryana) agroclimatic conditions.
In a study conducted in Hisar, Haryana, India, during the kharif of 2001, the insect pests on cowpea (cultivars CS 88, Pusa Phalguni and HFC 42-1) grown under protected (sprayed with 0.07% endosulfan 35 EC at 45, 55 and 65 days after germination) and unprotected conditions were investigated. Nineteen insect pests on cowpea from germination until harvest and 9 natural enemies were observed. Based on population build-up and percent incidence, the 4 major insect pests were leafhopper (Empoasca kerri; 2.61 nymphs per plant), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci; 2.74 nymphs per plant), pod borer complex (Euchrysops pandava pandava [Chilades pandava], Maruca testulalis [Maruca vitrata] and Helicoverpa armigera; 51.0%) and pod bugs (Clavigralla gibbosa, Nezara viridula and Riptortus pedestris; 10.2%). Anticarsia irrorata, Margaronia indica [Diaphania indica] and E. pandava pandava are reported for the first time on cowpea. Stomoxys calcitrans is recorded for the first time as a larval parasitoid of Chrysodeixis chalcites and Anticarsia irrorata. The avoidable losses in grain yield due to damage by pests were 47.36, 43.77 and 60.53% in CS 88, Pusa Phalguni and HFC 42-1, respectively. The percent increase in grain yield due to the timely adoption of control measures was highest (153.40%) in HFC 42-1. Overall losses of approximately 56.56% could be avoided by the adoption of pest control measures.