Seasonal progression and agronomic impact of Tobacco streak virus on soybean in Wisconsin.
Pod necrosis and dieback of terminal portions of stems, commonly called bud blight, are observed in soyabean fields and associated with Tobacco streak virus (TSV), an understudied virus of soyabean. Furthermore, many TSV-infected plants are asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution and seasonal progress of TSV-infected plants in both natural and controlled epidemics, and the agronomic impact of TSV on soyabean in plots with controlled introduction of inoculum. Incidence of TSV-positive samples ranged from 17 to 56% in a general survey. In the presence of natural sources of inoculum, the incidence of TSV-infected plants ranged from 10 to 95% depending on cultivar and location, and peaked at growth stage R2, but detection dropped dramatically at R5. During 2001, significant yield loss and incidence of mottled seed were associated with TSV, but results were confounded by a high incidence of SMV. In 2002, SMV was controlled by cultivar selection, and a 25% reduction in grain yield was attributable to TSV. The incidence of mottled seed and green stem syndrome were low in the presence of TSV. Reductions in plant density and final plant height contributed to reduced yields. However, no significant differences were found in seed number per plant and 100-seed weight. Data indicate that plant mortality was the main mechanism by which TSV caused yield loss in induced epidemics.