Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Antiplasmodial activity of seven plants used in African folk medicine.

Abstract

This study investigated the antimalarial properties of extracts derived from 7 plant species, namely Achromanes difformis, Cleome rutidosperma, Cymbopogon citratus, Piper umbellatum, Mellotus appositofolius, Mangifera indicus and Annona muricata, which are commonly used by some traditional healers in Cameroon. Serial dilutions of each extract were tested on asynchronous F32 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in 96 flat-bottom well plates in duplicate using chloroquine as a positive control. A control containing no extract was included and used in calculating the percentage inhibition of parasite growth. In addition to the extract, each test well contained 1% parasitized blood group O of 2% haematocrit in malaria culture medium. Growth inhibition was assessed after 24 h of culture. The number of parasitized erythrocytes was estimated by counting at least 6000 erythrocytes per well. P. umbellatum and M. appositofolius extracts had moderate activity against the parasite with 40 µg/ml of each giving 70% and 57% inhibition, respectively. Extracts of C. citratus, M. indicus and A. muricata showed better antimalarial activities, with 20 µg/ml of each extract causing 57.9%, 50.4% and 67% parasite inhibition. A. difformis and C. rutidosperma extracts showed the least activity, causing 32.4% and 31.6% inhibition at 40 µg/ml concentration. Chloroquine showed 89% parasite inhibition at 0.64 µg/ml. It is not known whether the in vitro effect of these extracts against P. falciparum is due to the concerted activity of their components, suggesting the need to study the chemical composition of these extracts.