Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed logs and chips of eighteen eucalypt species from Australia.
The unmitigated pest risk potential from the importation of unprocessed logs and chips of 18 species of eucalypts (Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. cloeziana, E. delegatensis, E. diversicolor, E. dunnii, E. globulus, E. grandis, E. nitens, E. obliqua, E. ovata, E. pilularis, E. regnans, E. saligna, E. sieberi, E. viminalis, E. calophylla, E. citriodora and E. maculata) from Australia into the USA was assessed by estimating the likelihood and consequences of introduction of representative insects and pathogens of concern. Twenty-two individual pest risk assessments were prepared, 15 dealing with insects and 7 with pathogens. The selected organisms were representative examples of insects and pathogens found in foliage, on the bark, in the bark and in the wood of eucalypts. By necessity, this pest risk assessment focuses on those insects and pathogens for which biological information is available. Among the insects and pathogens assessed for logs as the commodity, high risk potentials were assigned to the following 14 organisms or groups of organisms, viz., leaf beetles, ambrosia beetles and pinworms, round-headed wood borers, ghost moths and carpenterworms, true powderpost beetles, false powderpost or auger beetles, dampwood termite, giant termite, drywood termites, subterranean termites, Botryosphaeria canker pathogen, Cryphonectria eucalypti canker pathogen, stain and vascular wilt fungi, and the root-, sapwood- and heart-rot fungi. A moderate pest risk potential was assigned to four organisms or group of organisms, including the gumleaf skeletonizer moth, foliar disease fungi, Seiridium canker fungi, and the Armillaria root rot fungi. When chips were considered as the commodity, the risk potentials remained high for the true powderpost beetles, false powderpost beetles, Cryphonectria canker, the stain and vascular wilt fungi, and the rot fungi, dropped to moderate for the ambrosia beetles and pinworms and for Botryosphaeria canker, and dropped to low for leaf beetles, round-headed wood borers, ghost moths and carpenterworms, and all termites. The risk potential for the Seiridium canker fungi remained at moderate, while the risk potential for the gumleaf skeletonizer moth, the foliar disease fungi and the Armillaria root rot fungi dropped from moderate to low for the chip commodity. For those organisms of concern that are associated with the 18 species of Australian eucalypts considered in the pest risk assessment, specific phytosanitary measures may be required to ensure the quarantine safety of proposed importations.