Relative attractiveness of some volatiles to the introduced pine bark beetles, Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).
Raw turpentine, α- and β-pinene, and ethanol were as attractants to Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda. These volatiles were tested alone and in combination with ethanol using multiple funnel traps in cut-over Pinus radiata forest in North Island, New Zealand. Compared with combinations of α- and β-pinene, and ethanol, raw turpentine alone was a poor attractant for Hylurgus ligniperda and Hylastes ater. With the addition of ethanol, raw turpentine was the most attractive volatile combination to Hylastes ater, while α-pinene and ethanol, and β-pinene and ethanol were the most attractive volatile combinations to Hylurgus ligniperda. The addition of ethanol had a synergistic effect on all attractants, except α-pinene to Hylastes ater. Raw turpentine and ethanol is a suitable, low cost volatile combination for use in programmes to monitor populations of these bark beetles, and is a particularly effective attractant for use in Hylastes ater trapping programmes.