Inheritance of methyl-parathion resistance in Nebraska western corn rootworm populations (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
Field populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, were collected from three different sites (York Co., Phelps Co. and Saunders Co.) in Nebraska, USA, in 1996. Adult bioassays of these three populations were conducted with different concentrations of methylparathion [parathion-methyl] and at a diagnostic concentration (1.0 µg/ml) to determine resistance levels among these populations. Self and reciprocal crosses were made between the two resistant and one susceptible laboratory-reared populations. Dose-responses and dominance ratios calculated for the four reciprocal crosses indicated that resistance was incompletely dominant in both strains, although in one of the strains there was an indication of sex linkage. However, evaluation of native polyacrylamide gels stained for nonspecific esterases and nonspecific esterase activity of parents and F1 progeny of the crosses suggested that esterase inheritance was completely dominant and autosomal. The results of this study were inconclusive with regard to the precise nature of inheritance, because the bioassays and esterase assays could not discriminate between heterozygotes and homozygotes. However, they do provide insight into the potential for developing simple diagnostic assays to assess resistance frequencies. Based on the inheritance studies described, we can begin to generate information on specific genetic factors that dictate the evolutionary divergence of discrete resistant populations and facilitate modelling efforts designed to approximate the movement of genes for resistance among populations.