Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Tolerance of Austrodanthonia fulva, Microlaena stipoides and Elymus scaber seedlings to nine herbicides.

Abstract

Native perennial grasses have the potential to reduce or even reverse environmental degradation in southeastern Australia. The key to their success as sown cultivars is that high quality seed becomes available in the marketplace at a reasonable price. An important barrier to producing seed of these native species has been the difficulty of establishing commercial seed crops because of competition from annual weeds. This paper reports the results of a glasshouse experiment that evaluated herbicide tolerance of seedlings of Austrodanthonia fulva, Microlaena stipoides, and Elymus scaber accessions selected for desirable growth and persistence attributes. Nine herbicides registered in New South Wales for the selective control of annual weeds; atrazine, bromoxynil, chlorsulfuron, cyanazine, diclofop-methyl, metolachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, prometryn, and simazine were applied to native grass seedlings at the three-leaf stage at two rates. Elymus scaber displayed tolerance to metsulfuron-methyl (4.8 g a.i. ha-1), chlorsulfuron (15-30 g a.i. ha-1), metolachlor (432 g a.i. ha-1), diclofop-methyl (563-1125 g a.i. ha-1), and bromoxynil (400-800 g a.i. ha-1). Partial tolerance to metsulfuron-methyl (9.6 g a.i. ha-1) and metolachlor (864 g a.i. ha-1) was recorded. Sensitivity to atrazine (500-1000 g a.i. ha-1), cyanazine (750-1500 g a.i. ha-1), prometryn (625-1250 g a.i. ha-1), and simazine (750-1500 g a.i. ha-1) was recorded. Microlaena stipoides was tolerant to chlorsulfuron (15 g a.i. ha-1) and partially tolerant to bromoxynil (400-800 g a.i. ha-1), metsulfuron-methyl (4.8-9.6 g a.i. ha-1), chlorsulfuron (30 g a.i. ha-1), metolachlor (432 g a.i. ha-1) and to a lesser degree, diclofop-methyl (563-1125 g a.i. ha-1) and metolachlor (864 g a.i. ha-1). Sensitivity to atrazine (500-1000 g a.i. ha-1), cyanazine (750-1500 g a.i. ha-1), prometryn (625-1250 g a.i. ha-1), and simazine (750-1500 g a.i. ha-1) was observed. Austrodanthonia fulva was tolerant of metolachlor (432 g a.i. ha-1) and showed partial tolerance to bromoxynil (400-800 g a.i. ha-1) and metolachlor (864 g a.i. ha-1) but was sensitive to all the other herbicides tested.