Resistance of Geneva and other apple rootstocks to Erwinia amylovora.
When vigorously growing shoots of 49 different apple rootstocks grown in a greenhouse were inoculated with different strains of Erwinia amylovora, Budagovsky 9 (B.9), Ottawa 3, Malling 9, and Malling 26 were the most fire blight susceptible rootstocks and Geneva 11, Geneva 65, Geneva 16, Geneva 30, Pillnitzer Au51-11, Malling 7, and several breeding selections were the most resistant. Significant strain-rootstock interactions were observed in the amount of fire blight that resulted from inoculation. Field-grown fruiting 'Royal Gala' trees on Geneva 16 and Geneva 30 rootstocks were highly resistant to rootstock infection (no tree mortality) when trees sustained severe blossom infection with E. amylovora, compared with Malling 9 and Malling 26 rootstock clones, which were highly susceptible to infection (36 to 100% tree mortality). In contrast to potted own-rooted B.9 plants inoculated in a greenhouse, B.9 rootstocks of orchard trees appeared resistant to rootstock infection (0% tree mortality). Orchard trees on Geneva 11 were moderately resistant to rootstock infection (25% tree mortality). There was general agreement in the evaluation of resistance under orchard conditions when rootstock resistance was evaluated in relation to controlled blossom inoculation or to natural blossom infection.