Identities and geographic distributions of Phytophthora spp. causing root rot of red raspberry in Chile.
Five identified and two unidentified Phytophthora spp. were isolated from diseased roots of dead or declining red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) plants sampled from 18 plantations along a >1000-km north-south axis in Chile. The array of Phytophthora spp. isolated was strongly associated with geographical location. P. fragariae var. rubi was recovered from 75 and 60% of the plantations in the southern (40°16′ to 40°53′S latitude) and central (34°35′ to 37°23′S latitude) production sectors, respectively, but was not recovered from any plantation in the northern sector (32°43′ to 33°45′S latitude). Similarly, P. megasperma and P. gonopodyides [P. gonapodyides] were recovered from multiple plantations in the southern and central sectors but were not recovered in the northern sector. In contrast, P. cryptogea was recovered from 80% of the plantations in both the northern and central sectors but not from any plantation in the south, whereas P. citricola was isolated from diseased plants in all sectors. In subsequent pathogenicity trials, P. citricola, P. cryptogea, and an unidentified Phytophthora sp. were equally and highly virulent on 'Heritage' red raspberry in each of three greenhouse experiments. The other species were less virulent in the experiment when soil temperatures were highest (mean weekly maximum=27.5°C) relative to the other two experiments when temperatures were more moderate (mean weekly maxima of 19.9 and 23.7°C). Isolates identified as P. cryptogea were very similar to P. cryptogea isolates recovered previously from kiwi fruit in Chile and from deciduous fruit trees in California with respect to morphological characters and electrophoretic banding patterns of soluble mycelial proteins. Using the same criteria, isolates identified as P. gonopodyides were very similar to isolates recovered earlier from deciduous fruit crops in New York, which previously were identified as P. cryptogea sensu lato but are hereby reclassified as P. gonopodyides.