Integrated weed management in pearlmillet (Pennisetum typhoides).
A field experiment was conducted in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, during the kharif season of 1997 to study the effects of various weed control treatments (pre-emergence oxyfluorfen at 0.30 kg/ha at 3 days after sowing or DAS, weeding by dry land weeder or blade hoe, intercropping with cowpea, and hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS) on P. typhoides [P. glaucum] cv. MBH-163 and associated weeds (Echinochloa colona, Trianthema monogyna [T. portulacastrum], Cyperus rotundus, Alhagi camelorum [A. maurorum], Cynodon dactylon, Pluchea lanceolata, and Convolvulus arvensis). All herbicides significantly reduced weed density and dry matter production. The highest weed control efficacy (82.2%) was recorded for hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS. Weed-infested plots registered a grain yield reduction of 39.8% when compared to plots subjected to hand weeding. All herbicides significantly improved the number of shoots and effective tillers, grain weight per plant, 1000-grain weight, dry matter, and yield. Weeding at 15 and 30 DAS was most effective as it gave the highest grain yield (2583 kg/ha).