Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Genetic markers in the study of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860): larval identification and genetic relationships with other species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

Abstract

Genetic variation at 21 gene-enzyme systems was studied in a sample of an adult population of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860) recovered in the dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The characteristic alleles, detected in this population, made it possible to identify as A. typica, Anisakis larvae with a Type I morphology (sensu Berland, 1961) from various fishes: Thunnus thynnus and Auxis thazard from Brazil waters, Trachurus picturatus and Scomber japonicus from Madeiran waters, Scomberomorus commerson, Euthynnus affinis, Sarda orientalis and Coryphaena hippurus from the Somali coast of the Indian Ocean, and Merluccius merluccius from the Eastern Mediterranean. Characteristic allozymes are given for the identification, at any life-stage and in both sexes, of A. typica and the other Anisakis species so far studied genetically. The distribution of A. typica in warmer temperate and tropical waters is confirmed; the definitive hosts so far identified for this species belong to delphinids, phocoenids and pontoporids. The present findings represent the first established records of intermediate/paratenic hosts of A. typica and extend its range to Somali waters of the Indian Ocean and to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable genetic homogeneity was observed in larval and adult samples of A. typica despite their different geographical origin; interpopulation genetic distances were low, ranging from DNei=0.004 (Eastern Mediterranean versus Somali) to DNei=0.010 (Brazilian versus Somali). Accordingly, indirect estimates of gene flow gave a rather high average value of Nm=6.00. Genetic divergence of A. typica was, on average, DNei=1.12 from the members of the A. simplex complex (A. simplex s.s, A. pegreffii, A. simplex C) and DNei=1.41 from A. ziphidarum, which all share Type I larvae; higher values were found from both A. physeteris (DNei=2.77) and A. brevispiculata (DNei=2.52), which have Type II larvae (sensu Berland, 1961). Genetic relationships among these species are shown using multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS). The genus Anisakis appears to be phylogenetically heterogeneous and includes two distinct groups of species, which are morphologically and genetically differentiated.