The occurrence of Characoma ruficirra Hampson and its control.
The noctuid Characoma ruficirra is a major pest of chestnuts [Castanea] growing in central Zhejiang province, with fruit damage levels usually reaching 38.2%. There are 2 generations a year, with full-grown larvae hibernating in fallen fruit shells and in bark crevices. The larvae at first attack the fruit skin and then the internal young nuts. Traditionally, control consists of removing the damaged fallen fruit shells, using UV light-traps to trap adults, and sugar + vinegar sprays. Alternatively, spraying with a 50% parathion emulsion or 40% omethoate emulsion twice a year in early June and mid July achieves good control.