Occurrence of Tobacco streak virus on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in India.
A virus disease of peanut (groundnut, Arachis hypogaea), characterized by necrosis of the stem and terminal leaflets followed by death, caused severe crop losses in Andhra Pradesh, India during the rainy season of the year 2000. The disease was referred to as peanut stem necrosis disease (PSND). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. C-152) and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Topcrop were suitable for propagating the virus. In laboratory inoculation tests, the virus infected a large number of plants. In laboratory tests, the virus was transmitted by the thrips Frankliniella schultzei. Viral particles were purified by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation from infected cowpea plants and were used to elicit the production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum with high titre. Extracts of infected plants reacted with antiserum to tobacco streak virus (TSV). Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from purified virus particles showed them to contain a major protein of 28 kDa and a minor, although prominent, protein of 57 kDa. Gel electrophoresis of RNA extracted from virus particles resolved it into four species with estimated sizes of 3.7, 3.1, 2.2 and 0.9 kb. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was made using as template a sample of the 2.2-kb RNA 3 and as primer an oligonucleotide complementary to sequence in RNA 3 of TSV. Following second strand synthesis, the cDNA was cloned in pBluescript and the nucleotide sequence was obtained for 868 nt of the cDNA. The sequence was 88.4% identical to the sequence in RNA 3 of TSV (strain WC). The results indicate that the causal agent of PSND is TSV. The same virus also caused sunflower necrosis, an economically important disease in India. Studies on the epidemiology of PSND and the identification of virus-resistant peanut genotypes have been initiated to devise strategies to control PSND.