Agromyzid leafminers and their parasitoids in Jordan.
A survey of agromyzid leafminers and their parasitoids was conducted between July 1995 and September 1996, at different locations of Jordan, including Amman area, Madaba, Bagaa, Jerash, Mafraq, Modawara, Ghur Safi and Central Ghur. Five leafminer species were found and observed to be pests of vegetables, ornamentals and weeds in all the visited sites. These were Chromatomyia horticola, Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. trifolii, L. sativae and Phytomyza petoei. The most common was L. huidobrensis, followed by Chromatomyia horticola. Seventeen leafminer parasitoids were found, and 16 of them were identified as Chrysocharis orbicularis, C. pubicornis, Cirrospilus vittatus, Diaulinopsis arenaria, Diglyphus crassinervis, D. isaea, Halticoptera circulus, Halticoptera sp., Hemiptarsenus dropion, H. zilahisebessi, Hemiptarsenus sp., Neochrysocharis formosa, Pediobius acantha, Ratzeburgiola incompleta, Gronotoma sp. and Opius sp. N. formosa was the most common, followed by Diglyphus isaea. It was observed that L. huidobrensis was attacked by 16 parasitoids, while the other leafminers were attacked only by 1-3 parasitoids.