Phylogenetic and genomic relationships in Setaria italica and its close relatives based on the molecular diversity and chromosomal organization of 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA genes.
We have analysed the phylogenetic and genomic relationships in the genus Setaria including diploid and tetraploid species, by means of the molecular diversity of the 5S rDNA spacer and chromosomal organization of the 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA genes. PCR amplification of the 5S rDNA sequences gave specific patterns. All the species studied here share a common band of about 340 bp. An additional band of an approximately 300 bp repeat unit was found for Setaria verticillata and the Chinese accessions of S. italica and S. viridis. An additional band of 450 bp was found in the sole species S. faberii. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of the 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA genes and showed that they are localized at two separate loci with no polymorphism of chromosome location among species. Two chromosome pairs carrying the 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA clusters can now be unambiguously identified using FISH. Phylogenetic trees based on the variation of the amplified 5S rDNA sequences showed a clear separation into four groups. The clustering was dependent on the genomic composition (genome A versus genome B) and confirmed the closest relationship of S. italica and S. viridis accessions from the same geographical region. Our results confirm previous hypotheses on the domestication centres of S. italica. They also show the wide difference between the A and B genomes, and even clarify the taxonomic position of S. verticillata.